The main force of the thrust ribbed vaults has been handed down the skilful builders of Gothic cathedrals outside of space and Church halls are not passed directly to the inner columns or thickened wall (as in Romanesque churches), and with the extension of the retaining arches (flying buttresses) were transferred to huge abutments — piers laid for this purpose from the outside of the side walls of the temple. These auxiliary, Alla Romana is massive and bulky parts of the structure of a Gothic Cathedral and made for the medieval builders possible to replace the thick pillars of the Romanesque churches of the thin columns and create such a light, rapidly rising up the composition of the internal space.
The relief of the supports does not mean, however, that in the Gothic “destroyed” stone material. On the contrary, the stone is extremely acute in Gothic architecture, both inside and outside. Just removed the excess stone in the interior, as in the fully elaborated marble statue depicting a muscular body. The removal of redundant material, leading to cut-out the profile Gothic pillars and ribs, bare their mechanical properties, such as stiffness, elasticity, lightness, and brings art to limit the severity of their functional role in the constructive framework of the building. Supports, ribs, etc. become in some huge Continue reading
In the second half of the twelfth century in Western Europe began to appear the architecture of the new, unusual style, radically different from the Romanesque. This style, called Gothic, was rooted in cultural values developed cities, and most are firmly rooted in it is in architecture.
At this time, the townspeople, who won the long struggle with the feudal lords, were carriers of economic and social progress. Into the arena came a new burgher’s worldview, in which man was regarded as the Creator of wealth and a Creator, and one of its main features was the pride of the city and the desire to bring him glory. The main cultural value in this period was the Cathedral, almost get rid of its defensive functions.
Stylistic changes in architecture were not only caused by the change of functions of buildings, but also significant progress in the development of construction techniques based on the precise design and exact calculation. Gothic cathedrals were to have specific design and style features, the main of which was the refinement of the columns, the complication types of the Basilica, the construction of arches, lightweight construction, large arched stained-glass Windows, as well as the close relationship of the exterior and interior. Continue reading
Underwater archaeology around 100 years. And during that time, researchers have made many surprising discoveries. So, in different parts of the globe at the bottom of water bodies repeatedly found mysterious structures similar to ancient Egyptian pyramids…
The existence of the pyramids on the bottom of the American Rock lake there is no doubt. But who was able to build 10 thousand years ago, when the lake bottom was still land? What a mysterious civilization existed in those days, when, according to scientists, only small primitive tribes were fighting for their survival in the vast North American continent.
One summer day at the lake Rock gathered a large crowd of residents of the American city of lake mills. Brought them here a curiosity: it can be true that will finally solved the mystery that is spoken by more than one decade. People looked at the colored pontoons, from which the water was out of divers. Passed some time, and they are out of stock of the air, came back to the surface. The longest was a young biologist W. Kennedy. But then came and he, holding some kind of stone. After removing the mask, he cried: “got it!”. What divers were looking for? About Rock lake, just 40 miles East of Madison (Wisconsin), has long been legendary. The first time it was talked about in the beginning of negotiate after the story of the hunters hunted ducks on lake. Continue reading