In the second half of the twelfth century in Western Europe began to appear the architecture of the new, unusual style, radically different from the Romanesque. This style, called Gothic, was rooted in cultural values developed cities, and most are firmly rooted in it is in architecture.
At this time, the townspeople, who won the long struggle with the feudal lords, were carriers of economic and social progress. Into the arena came a new burgher’s worldview, in which man was regarded as the Creator of wealth and a Creator, and one of its main features was the pride of the city and the desire to bring him glory. The main cultural value in this period was the Cathedral, almost get rid of its defensive functions.
Stylistic changes in architecture were not only caused by the change of functions of buildings, but also significant progress in the development of construction techniques based on the precise design and exact calculation. Gothic cathedrals were to have specific design and style features, the main of which was the refinement of the columns, the complication types of the Basilica, the construction of arches, lightweight construction, large arched stained-glass Windows, as well as the close relationship of the exterior and interior. Continue reading
Gothic architecture can be determined by design technology – the Lancet arch defines the characteristics and artistic merits of the building: the use of Lancet arches, is more stable than a semicircular arch that transmits the thrust at certain points, reinforced with buttresses and flying buttresses. So exempt the piers used for additional lighting. they cut out Windows and put glass. A feeling of rush up, the internal volume rushes in height. The architects have tirelessly and successfully worked in these two areas that. as the discharge surface vertically, leading to new achievements. Occasional setbacks did not stop searching, do not put into question the principles of Gothic architecture. The style was, thus, derived from technology, and this determines the taste, creating new criteria of beauty.
Gothic art was not used in Italy than in France. The Church here is less high. They are darker because they do not transmit the thrust of the PA poles for the liberation of surfaces of walls. Rarely used the buttresses shown in the picture Villas de Ara Opkara (bottom). And in the 15th century Italians blamed pipeli utielana General view. They saw them as barbaric. Thus the Renaissance masters refused, and the exploits of the medieval masons: they returned to the semicircular arch, to static structures where the masonry carries the load only vertically, regardless of the severity, pristoptera mass. The revival did not seek showiness, excessive) increase in the volume, the relief of partition. the light – and it paid for it by the disappearance of stained glass. In this sense, the Renaissance was a real setback. Continue reading
Many scientific articles and books written about the various artifacts and ancient structures in the territories of different countries. Only the findings on the territory of Russia for some reason silent. I decided to fill this “gap” some information on this topic.
Until recently it was believed that Africa is the ancestral home of mankind, because there were found the most ancient remains of “Homo sapiens”, Dating from 1.2 to 2.4 million years. However, on the territory of Russia have found a much more ancient artifacts. For 14 years archaeological expedition to the village of Deering-yuriakh, which is not far from Yakutsk. The artifacts found there (stone bowls, mortars, instruments of labour and hunting) are dated by scholars to the 2.4 – 3 million years. Finds quite a lot — there are already tens of thousands of artifacts, which indicates a fairly dense and long-term human settlement in this territory. Unfortunately, it is not found in the Internet photo finds from Deering yuriakh, only a brief mention of the excavation produced. Apparently, Orthodox science is not “profitable” to highlight such findings, radically overturning “established opinion” about human development. Continue reading