The main force of the thrust ribbed vaults has been handed down the skilful builders of Gothic cathedrals outside of space and Church halls are not passed directly to the inner columns or thickened wall (as in Romanesque churches), and with the extension of the retaining arches (flying buttresses) were transferred to huge abutments — piers laid for this purpose from the outside of the side walls of the temple. These auxiliary, Alla Romana is massive and bulky parts of the structure of a Gothic Cathedral and made for the medieval builders possible to replace the thick pillars of the Romanesque churches of the thin columns and create such a light, rapidly rising up the composition of the internal space.
The relief of the supports does not mean, however, that in the Gothic “destroyed” stone material. On the contrary, the stone is extremely acute in Gothic architecture, both inside and outside. Just removed the excess stone in the interior, as in the fully elaborated marble statue depicting a muscular body. The removal of redundant material, leading to cut-out the profile Gothic pillars and ribs, bare their mechanical properties, such as stiffness, elasticity, lightness, and brings art to limit the severity of their functional role in the constructive framework of the building. Supports, ribs, etc. become in some huge Continue reading
If in Toledo I spent a little time to see anything, besides the Cathedral, in córdoba, whose historic center is considered world heritage list, I didn’t even try anywhere else than in the pearl of the city to go. All the time was devoted to Sevilla, where I was headed next.
However, because of problems with Parking on the North side I had to Park on the South, and to go from the car to the mosque on the Roman bridge. In my plans it was not included – but an interesting angle that could only not be missed. In the foreground in the shot is the gate of the bridge, on the left column of the Archangel Raphael.
Here, incidentally, quite clearly (as it seems deceptive), visible Christian add-ons.
Muslim volume rises only on 3 floors (which is easy to count on arches). Everything else added is a Christian. Remember these elliptical box – we will see more of them.
(actually, the nearest octagonal dome is also a Muslim building, and inside it will be clearly seen) Continue reading
Mysterious underground tunnels are found on all continents. Experts are convinced that this is a very ancient constructions. But it is still unknown who built and for what purpose.
Moves under the world
Polish researcher Jan Pink argues that system of ancient tunnel covers the entire planet, including the ocean floor. The tunnels seemed to be burned into the surface of the earth. Their walls are hardened melt rocks that look like glass. Modern humanity is similar tunneling technology is unknown.
The oldest tunnels, whose age is estimated at nearly a million years, was found in 1965 by the Argentina ethnologist Juan Moritz. In Ecuador, in the province of Morona-Santiago, his expedition explored and mapped the system of tunnels, mostly rectangular, running at a depth of 230 meters. Their smooth walls seem to be polished. They are ventilation pipes with a diameter of about 70 centimeters. These mysterious underground structures extend for hundreds of kilometers in different directions, including towards the Pacific ocean. Most of them still remain unexplored. Continue reading