The main force of the thrust ribbed vaults has been handed down the skilful builders of Gothic cathedrals outside of space and Church halls are not passed directly to the inner columns or thickened wall (as in Romanesque churches), and with the extension of the retaining arches (flying buttresses) were transferred to huge abutments — piers laid for this purpose from the outside of the side walls of the temple. These auxiliary, Alla Romana is massive and bulky parts of the structure of a Gothic Cathedral and made for the medieval builders possible to replace the thick pillars of the Romanesque churches of the thin columns and create such a light, rapidly rising up the composition of the internal space.
The relief of the supports does not mean, however, that in the Gothic “destroyed” stone material. On the contrary, the stone is extremely acute in Gothic architecture, both inside and outside. Just removed the excess stone in the interior, as in the fully elaborated marble statue depicting a muscular body. The removal of redundant material, leading to cut-out the profile Gothic pillars and ribs, bare their mechanical properties, such as stiffness, elasticity, lightness, and brings art to limit the severity of their functional role in the constructive framework of the building. Supports, ribs, etc. become in some huge Continue reading
The first Polish city I visited was Warsaw, and Krakow became the second.
Krakow and Warsaw – how much they have in common. Two capitals – one former, the other current. Two of the Royal city, and in one and in another there is a Royal road, the castle, the old town and the Barbican. Both are situated on the Vistula. Unites them this? No, on the contrary! Residents of Krakow and Warsaw do not like each other. But that does not stop us to fall in love with Krakow and Warsaw with equal force!
Krakow is an ancient city, the first mention of him dates from the year 965.
My mom wanted to visit Krakow, so it was here we got out in may 2003 on an excursion with the whole family. (Later, Sasha and I visited here for the second time – this time in the autumn, in November 2005, and stayed here in transit on the way from Prague to Kiev.) Continue reading
The knowledge of the Earth in primeval times. In ancient times (40-30 thousand years ago) even the primitive people had to understand the environment, to gather fruits, to fish, to hunt wild animals, to escape from the elemental forces of nature. Primitive hunters and gatherers were trying to expand their houses at the expense of more distant lands. So they learned the space.
Scenery the people portrayed in the form of notches on cave walls, bark of trees, bones of animals. So passed to future generations about hunting grounds and traps on the way to new places. These ancient drawings found in many parts of the world – Europe, Asia, Africa . Ancient Ukrainian also left behind a geographic context. Under archaeological excavations in the Cherkassy region of mammoth Tusk found with the records made by our ancestors have 13 thousand years ago. If you look closely you can see the hills, forest, river.
Carving symbolic signs environment support materials on the, man created schematic drawings area. They are considered ancient maps, true, very primitive. They appeared long before the appearance of writing. To distinguish the new rivers, lakes, mountains, forests have already known, people complained their names. The names were passed orally from generation Pokolenie. So people produced geographical experience. Continue reading