Today Hampi is a Ghost town inhabited by mostly apes. On the past power of its ancient inhabitants left only ruins of the once magnificent capital of a trading Empire Vijayanagar, which flourished in the mid 14th century. Meanwhile, Hampi continues to be a center of Hindu religion, in particular, due to the current and still Virupaksha temple.
The official history States that the capital of Vijayanagara was founded because of the good location of the area: on one side the city is washed by the river, with three others – was surrounded by inaccessible hills. In the early 14th century the Empire has been waging a fierce war with the followers of Islam, and the construction of large and well-fortified city was a response to the expansion of the Muslims.
Meanwhile, recently in the scientific circles there is information that, most likely, the village of Hampi, capital of Vijayanagara, is much older than was commonly believed. The fact that the ruins of the capital of the Empire, rising on the foundations of more ancient structures. Many scholars argue that the mysterious and unknown to modern science destroyed the town – the remains of Kishkinda, a mythical state of monkeys. Continue reading
Gothic architecture can be determined by design technology – the Lancet arch defines the characteristics and artistic merits of the building: the use of Lancet arches, is more stable than a semicircular arch that transmits the thrust at certain points, reinforced with buttresses and flying buttresses. So exempt the piers used for additional lighting. they cut out Windows and put glass. A feeling of rush up, the internal volume rushes in height. The architects have tirelessly and successfully worked in these two areas that. as the discharge surface vertically, leading to new achievements. Occasional setbacks did not stop searching, do not put into question the principles of Gothic architecture. The style was, thus, derived from technology, and this determines the taste, creating new criteria of beauty.
Gothic art was not used in Italy than in France. The Church here is less high. They are darker because they do not transmit the thrust of the PA poles for the liberation of surfaces of walls. Rarely used the buttresses shown in the picture Villas de Ara Opkara (bottom). And in the 15th century Italians blamed pipeli utielana General view. They saw them as barbaric. Thus the Renaissance masters refused, and the exploits of the medieval masons: they returned to the semicircular arch, to static structures where the masonry carries the load only vertically, regardless of the severity, pristoptera mass. The revival did not seek showiness, excessive) increase in the volume, the relief of partition. the light – and it paid for it by the disappearance of stained glass. In this sense, the Renaissance was a real setback. Continue reading
The main visual feature of Gothic architecture is the aspiration of building up. Gothic cathedrals give the impression of lightness, easiness at its dizzying height. How to achieve a similar effect? The main technique of the Gothic – arched vaults. In the Romanesque buildings of stone, the roof was semi-circular and rested on the wall. To sustain loads, walls must have been massive. In the Gothic project designed a kind of complex frame supported directly on the Foundation. Thus, the walls lose the load carrying, hence the ability to make them light, to satisfy various decorations. In the Gothic cathedrals set UPS with complex frames, huge stained glass Windows, galleries, passages, towers and sculptures. In appearance it is impossible to guess what the internal structure of the building. Each of the facades of the crowd. For example, the photos of Notre Dame Cathedral taken from different sides, you can not guess that this is one and the same building.
Every Cathedral was devoted to some main topic: Paris – Notre Dame, Chartres – the history of the French Royal family. Decoration of cathedrals – reliefs, sculptures, frescoes, stained glass is a genuine encyclopedia of the medieval world and medieval life. For example, Chartres Cathedral is decorated with 9 thousand sculptures. Continue reading