The Architecture Of Ancient Rome
The architecture of Ancient Rome of ancient art, formed by the time of IV—I centuries BC, the Monuments of Ancient Rome now, even in the ruins captivate with its magnificence. The Romans ushered in a new era of world architecture in which the main place is belonged to public buildings, designed for a huge number of people: the Basilica, Thermae (public baths), theatres, amphitheatres, circuses, libraries, markets. In the list of buildings and structures of Rome should include the cult: temples, altars, tombs.
Throughout the ancient world architecture of Rome has no equal in the height of engineering and art, the diversity of types of facilities, the wealth of compositional forms, the scale of construction. The Romans introduced engineering structures (aqueducts, bridges, roads, harbors, fortresses, canals) as architectural objects in the urban, rural and landscape ensemble, used new construction materials and designs. They reworked the principles of Greek architecture, and first order system: an order connected with the arched structure.
Equally important in the development of Roman culture was the art of Hellenism with its architecture, gravitating to a Grand scale and urban centers. But the humanistic principle, the noble grandeur and harmony form the basis of the Greek art in Rome had given way to the tendencies to magnify the power of the emperors, the military power of the Empire. Hence large-scale exaggeration, externalities, false pathos enormous structures.
The diversity of structures and scale of construction in Ancient Rome significantly change in comparison with Greece: built a tremendous amount of great buildings. All this required a change in technical basis of construction. The complex task using the old technology had become impossible: and Rome and are designed to be global and radically new construction — brick-concrete, allowing to solve problems of covering long spans, many times to speed up the construction, and — most importantly — to limit the use of skilled craftsmen, construction processes by moving the shoulders in semi-skilled and unskilled workers-slaves.
Around the IV century BC as binder started to apply the solution (first in rubble masonry), and to II to V. p. E. has developed a new technology for construction of monolithic walls and ceilings based solutions and small stone aggregate. There was obtained an artificial monolith by mixing mud and sand with stone rubble under the name of “Roman concrete”. Hydraulic admixture of volcanic sand — pozzolan (name of locality, whence it was exported), made it waterproof and very durable. This caused a revolution in the construction. This clutch was carried out quickly and allowed to experiment with the form. The Romans knew the benefits of clay produced bricks of various shapes, used metal instead of wood for the fire safety of buildings, rational use of stone in the masonry Foundation. Some of the secrets of Roman builders not solved until now, for example, solution “Roman Malta” for chemists is a mystery and now.
Area of Rome and other cities were decorated with triumphal arches in honor of military victories, statues of emperors and distinguished public men of the state. Triumphal arches are a permanent or temporary monumental framing the passage (usually arched), Grand building in honor of military victories n other important events. The construction of triumphal arches and columns had a primarily political significance. 30-foot Trajan’s column was decorated with a spiral frieze, 200m depicting the military exploits of Trajan crowned the statue of the Emperor, the Foundation of which was bricked up an urn with his ashes.
The large domed structure of the ancient world is the Pantheon (from the Greek. Pentheion — a place dedicated to all gods). This is a temple in the name of all the gods, personified the idea of unity between the many peoples of the Empire. The main part of the Greek Pantheon is a circular temple, a dome with a diameter of 43.4 m, through the openings where the light penetrates into the inner part of the temple, striking grandeur and simplicity of decoration.
Basil played the role of the administrative building, where the Romans spent most of the day. The second part of the day was associated with leisure and was held in the baths. Baths consisted of a complex combination of buildings and premises associated with leisure, sports and hygiene. They had the premises for gymnastics and athletics, rooms for relaxing, conversations, speeches, libraries, physician offices, spas, pools, retail space, gardens and even a stadium. The baths could accommodate about a thousand or more people.
Baths were associated with the consumption of large amounts of water and, therefore, summed special branch of the aqueduct — aqueducts (bridge-water). Produced heating boilers in the basements. Aqueducts let water to Rome over a distance of several tens of kilometers. Thrown across the river, they represented an amazing picture of solid openwork arcade — single-stage, two – or even three-tiered. Built of stone, with clear proportions and silhouette, these structures are remarkable examples of unity of architectural forms and designs.
Among the public buildings of Ancient Rome a large group of spectacular buildings. The most well-known until nowadays the Colosseum is an amphitheatre, oval in a giant building in the shape of a bowl. In the center was the arena, and under the stands — space for the speakers. The Colosseum was built in 70 — 90s ad and had a capacity of 56 thousand viewers.
A large group of the structures were residential buildings of various types, including palaces and country villas. Especially characteristic of Rome one-storey mansions (Domus). Built and apartment buildings — insulin. Interiors and public, and residential buildings were decorated with sculpture, paintings, mosaics. The painting visually expands the space, as beautiful and varied décor. Mosaics adorned the floors. An important distinction from the Roman decor — large complexity and richness of forms and materials. Using various ornamental motifs, they created the most bizarre combinations, changing the build system, by weaving into compositions additional and diverse details.