The essence of German Gothic
Gothic architecture of Northern France was cultivated in Central Europe. However, she had to adopt their positions there, as it was perceived almost as a truly local style. It is therefore not surprising that the birthplace of Gothic architecture was long considered Germany. In the 19th century history of art has dispelled this delusion, however, in Germany the Gothic for some time continued to be considered a natural incarnation of the German national spirit.
German Gothic architecture, which for various reasons has often been the victim of erroneous interpretations, full of mysteries and specific details. Therefore, we will consider some typical problems, without, however, in a particularly subtle nuances. The merit of Gothic architecture in General is not so much creating a new type of Cathedral, but in the development of a new repertoire of forms that have stimulated the development of the fine arts in General, enriched the language of architecture and give it new depth. As for the Gothic architecture cathedrals of Northern France (which, of course, should not be considered the only form of goth), technical and expressive aspects of the architecture here has progressed with each new build. In the course of construction of any subsequent Gothic buildings effectively and eloquently solved the tasks before vypolneniya too successful (for example, the construction of the tower).
The signs of the direct effect of such innovative solutions in German architecture can be found in the Cathedral im Breisgau. Cologne Cathedral is the result of more original and independent response to French Gothic. Despite the fact that its chorus inspired by the choir in Amiens, passive borrowing to call it impossible, because of both external and internal design of the Amiens model there have been many improvements. And in the end, the Cologne choir has become the quintessence of the Gothic choir, the highest embodiment of the principles of Gothic. The choir of the Cathedral of Amiens, on the contrary, is not the most perfect Gothic buildings of this type, although the wall of the Central nave here and close to the ideal.
Among other important accomplishments, which rightly could be proud of the creators of the Cathedral in Cologne, it should be noted the two towers flanking the West facade. These towers were designed shortly after the choir and differ widely in their design with the principles of French Gothic. Myself and a giant profile of the Western façade, without doubt one of the most original medieval projects (work in progress he was not so much technical, how much for financial reasons). Finally, the unfinished South-West tower, where construction resumed in the 19th century, could be the most Grand and magnificent of all the towers of the middle Ages.
The connection of the Cathedral in Cologne with other samples of German Gothic not nearly as close as the relationship between the French cathedrals. Throughout Germany we find any temples, similar in style to the Cologne, although many elements of the latter have been the basis for many different types of buildings in which borrowing from Cologne appeared in a new, original context. Double side naves could also be used, for example, to create the effect of hall of the temple. The Cologne model was based on the shapes of the Windows of the upper storey columns, openwork ornaments and many other elements in the churches of Minden, Lubeck, and verden, Wetzlar and Oppenheim.