Architecture of West European Baroque
Masters of the early Baroque architects were Giacomo case of the Port, Domenico Fontana, Carlo Maderno. Their works are still strongly manifested the tradition of the Renaissance, the forms of the Baroque has not yet reached its full expression. High Baroque linked to the names of the greatest masters. In Rome he worked L. Bernini, F. Borromini, K. Rinaldi, in Venice, by B. Longhena, in Turin – G. Guarini, in Genoa – B. di Bianco, Lecce – Zimbalo, etc. During this period, finally formed features of the Baroque, manifesting itself in iconic buildings and civil in the first place, in the Palace facilities (both urban and rural). At this time, in some European countries, begin built the Palace and Park ensembles, demonstrating the specificity of the synthesis of arts in the Baroque. In the late period of Baroque gets its a wide spread in the architecture of many countries in Western and Eastern Europe (Germany, Austria, Spain, Czech Republic, Russia, etc.). Interacting with a new style of art – Rococo, Baroque becomes sometimes greater sophistication and refinement (especially the interior), known melkomasshtabnye and izmelchennost decor. Reduced scope of construction, in France, for example, preference is given to large palatial buildings, aristocratic mansions and hotels, apartment under construction four – storey building with apartments for rent.
The system of formal features that characterize the Baroque emerged in Italy. The country was a divided into the small States of the country, economic and political situation which was complex and unstable. In this situation, the leading role in the development of architecture belonged to the Catholic Church, the Vatican, which sought to strengthen its position and revive the Grand style of Ancient Rome. In Italy they built the monasteries, numerous temples, not very large in size, but always decorated emotionally impressive. The transformation of Rome was begun popes in the Renaissance period. Reconstructed the old and new was laid out pattern of streets, which would direct views of believers to the churches or to the obelisks and had to order the motion of numerous pilgrims. But the largest and most important order was the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.
The feeling of connection with the early history of Christianity, when the Church triumphed over paganism, forced to re-evaluate the old Basilica plan Church architecture. In 1605, the architect Carlo Maderno, changing the plan of Michelangelo, was attached to St. Peter’s huge Central vehicle with side aisles and an impressive lobby (narthex). The main facade is decorated by a large order, demonstrated the continuity of Renaissance traditions. But the architect and sculptor Lorenzo Bernini, Maderno became the successor for the construction of the Cathedral of St. Peter, organized the interior and the space in front of the Cathedral according to the new Baroque principles. The walls of the temple he covered with polychrome decorations of marble, stucco, bronze, and gold, filling the space of the Church with huge statues. In the depth of the main nave is shining with the Golden rays of Glory is the throne of St. Peter. Under the dome of the Cathedral, above the grave of the Apostle is fitted with a huge four-poster bed. The shape of the canopy bed dates back to the early Christian type of canopy, but takes on monumental dimensions (height 23 m), complex shaped cover supported by four twisted columns. Another element of early Christian architecture, Church courtyard, or atrium, was the source of inspiration for the creation of a huge square, built by Bernini in front of the Cathedral. But Bernini introduced new features, giving the area the shape of an oval and surrounded it with a colonnade, consisting of four rows of Tuscan columns. The oval with the favourite architects of the Baroque, create a sense of dynamism, of mobility. In contrast monumental active verticals of the columns and elastically curving the ribbon of the entablature with statues of saints builds the expressiveness of the space of the square.
The principles of the Baroque style found vivid expression in the works of Francesco Borromini. Its architectural style is characterized by the maximal dynamism and expressiveness of forms, he introduces the diversity and concave curved lines and surfaces, has resorted to extremely complex distribution space, is not afraid to disturb the ancient order system in the name of creating new proportions and new decorative motifs. In the interior of Borromini refuses the use of polychrome decoration in favor of white stucco. The Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (Saint Charles at the four fountains) in Rome has had a difficult outlines a plan that led to the creation of undulating internal walls and divergence between them and the outer dimensions of the building. The outer appearance of the Church was organized with a view to creating the impression of increased picturesqueness and expression, the facade is a kind of decorative cutouts superimposed on the wall surface.
After Rome a new style of architecture spread throughout Italy. But if Bernini sought to emphasize the expressive power of plastics and the integrity of the artistic image, other architects resorted to increasing the ornamental began. In Venice the Formation of Longhena, who built the Church of Santa Maria della Salute and the Palazzo Pesaro, combines Baroque elements with a decorative style, sometimes overloading the facades stucco sculptural and architectural details. In Turin, Guarini Guarino were built the Royal chapel, the Church of San Lorenzo and the Palazzo Carignano. Follower of Borromini, Guarini preferred centric plans of buildings, rounded shapes and forms, its architecture was expressive at its core, full of tense forms. The originality of a number of motives is Moorish and Gothic. The superabundance of decoration is different from the Church of Naples and Sicily. Under the impact of influences coming from Spain, which owned the Italian South, Sicily, the architects used monumental forms, overloaded with stucco and decorative sculpture. In Lecce, D. Zimbalo built several buildings, the facades of which literally disappear under the weight of excessive decorations.
In the XVII and XVIII century in Italy arise Park and garden complexes – villas of the nobility. They are characterized by a following scheme: the main building was on a hillside, the surface of which was used to create the system rises and the breakdown of the Park. All kinds of staircases, terraces, cascades, grottoes were concentrated on the main axis. All other sites, slopes, paths, green spaces were located relative to the axis. Architectural and decorative constructions of the Italian villas, the fountains, grottoes, hills, distinguished by the monumentality and refinement of forms, garden sculpture effectively combined with bobbed and freely growing greenery.
The early Baroque period in France is associated with the reign of Louis XIII (the first third of the XVII century) and represented by numerous monuments. Among them is the Central projection of the Western façade of the Louvre F. Lemercier, which has some Baroque features: “inserted” into each other pediments, active, plastic reliefs and other decorative elements. However, under the influence of the traditions of the Renaissance, French Baroque has a more relaxed character. In the architecture of palaces, castles and city mansions of the severity of style always prevails over the artistic imagination.
For the period of Louis XIV typical scope of architectural ensembles, individual public and private buildings. The facades of most of the major Palace buildings is solved already in the new style – classicism. For example, the palaces of Maisons-Lafitte (arch. F. Mansart), Vaux-Le-Vicomte (arch.L.Left) and Grand Palace in Versailles (architect. L. Left, J. A. Mansart), the Eastern facade of the Louvre (arch.To.Perrault). But their interiors are characterized by Baroque splendor, luxury and decoration in the Italian style using polychrome marble, gilt bronze and painting. The stylistic juxtaposition of the classical exteriors and interiors of the Baroque is a specific feature of the French architecture of the time. In the Park art in the framework of the Baroque are formed the principles of classicism, manifested primarily in the layout. On the primary axis of Versailles, which coincides with the axis of the Palace, are situated the fountain arch of triumph, the main alley, the fountain of Apollo and a huge cross-shaped Grand canal, which closes the prospect of joining the horizon Park. For Versailles, as the example of the French regular Park, the characteristic alleys, the huge plane parterres and ponds, the clarity of lines and contours, cut greens, marble and bronze sculptures. From the main facade to the Palace, met with three rays avenues from Paris and suburbs.
In Paris, in accordance with a single plan creates a new monumental space, such as place vendôme and place des Vosges. They represent a new stage of the French urban planning, they are characterized by a clear rectangular shape, enclosed space and due to building space on the perimeter: the place des Vosges has a solid construction of similar three-storey building with arcade at the first floor, and the place vendôme is limited to two U-shaped buildings using the facades of large orders.
The architecture of Church buildings focuses on Roman France, primarily centered on its composition, the types. For instance, the Invalides in Paris (arch. J. A. Mansart). The main part of the building with the use of a large order is decided in classic style and silhouette of the dome and the plastic elements of its design are felt Baroque features.
In the early XVIII century, during the reign of Louis XV, Baroque, Rococo develops into. This manifests itself primarily in the architecture of the Paris Palace hotels. Rococo is a style of interiors and details. The decor of the interior of the mask the structure of the premises, aided by a magnificent carved ornamentation (chopped asymmetrical plant forms, shells, garlands). Typical color scheme: white, light blue, grey, pearl and gold colors. In the interior are mirrors, painted panels, beautiful furnishings placed along the walls.