Architectural style: Gothic
The facade in Gothic stilnovo “Gothic” comes from the Italian gotico — unusual and barbaric — (Goten — barbarians; to the historical Goths, this style has nothing to do), and was initially used as a profanity. For the first time the notion in the modern sense used by Giorgio Vasari in order to separate the Renaissance from the middle ages. Gothic completed the development of European medieval art, which arose on the basis of the achievements of Roman culture and the Renaissance (Renaissance) art of the middle ages was considered “barbaric”. Gothic art was a cult on purpose and religious topics. It appealed to higher forces of the divine, of eternity, of the Christian worldview.
The Gothic style mainly manifested in the architecture of temples, cathedrals, churches, monasteries. Developed on the basis of the Romanesque, or rather Burgundian architecture. Unlike the Romanesque style with its round arches, massive walls and small Windows, typical of Gothic arches with a pointed top, a narrow and high towers and columns, the richly decorated facade with carved details (winery, tympanum, archivolt) and multicolor stained glass Lancet Windows. All the style elements that emphasize the vertical.
The Church of the monastery of Saint-Deniv Gothic architecture distinguish 3 stages of development: early, Mature (high Gothic), and late.
The Church of the monastery of Saint-Denis, designed by Abbot Suger, is considered the first Gothic architectural structure. The Abbey of Saint-Denis is a Benedictine Abbey in Saint-Denis, Northern suburb of Paris, the main monastery of medieval France. During the construction of the Abbey Church were removed many of the supports and interior walls, and the Church has become more graceful look compared to Romanesque churches.
As a sample, in most cases, took the chapel of Sainte-Chapelle in Paris. Sainte Chapelle (FR. Sainte Chapelle) — chapel – reliquary. Located in the former Royal Palace (then the Conciergerie) on the island of the Cité in Paris. Designed in the Gothic style. Small: length 35 m, width 11 m. it is Considered one of the most beautiful Gothic churches of small size. The third most visited monument of Paris. The chapel is built in a refined manner: a thin stone walls reinforced with metal straps and richly decorated with sculpture, ceramics, and colourful décor. Architectural elements of this Church are separate historical interest. The Church is divided into two tiers of equal size (600 m2) but different height. Lower chapel, consecrated in honor of the virgin Mary, were intended for courtiers, Palace guards and servants. At the top, consecrated in the name of the Holy cross, prayed for the Royal family close. There were relics. The first two tiers (lower chapel) has three naves and slender reinforced and closely adjacent to the walls of the buttresses, which take the thrust of the wide Central span. In the primary tier, upper chapel, which reaches a height of 20 m, it was possible to go directly from the main chambers of the Palace, and there was a small alcove for the Royal family. The nave of the upper chapel is famous for its completely preserved stained glass Windows, mostly of the 13th century, transforming the interior into a real jewelry box.
New frame konstrukcijas Ile-de-France (France) Gothic architectural style spread in Western, Central, and southern Europe — in Germany, England, etc. In Italy he reigned long, and, as a “barbaric style” quickly gave way to the Renaissance; and since he came here from Germany, it is still called “stile tedesco” — German style.
With the arrival in the early sixteenth century Renaissance North and West of the Alps, the Gothic style lost its importance.Almost all the architecture of Gothic cathedrals is due to one major invention of the time — new skeleton design, which makes these easily recognizable cathedrals.
In the Romanesque cathedrals and churches normally used the barrel vault, which relied on massive thick walls, which inevitably led to the decrease in the volume of the building and created additional difficulties in the construction, not to mention the fact that these were predetermined small number of Windows and their small size. With the advent of the cross vault, columns, flying buttresses, flying buttresses, cathedrals got kind of huge fantastic openwork structures.
The principle of the design is that the arch is no longer leans against the wall (as in Romanesque buildings), now the pressure of the cross vault and is passed the arch ribs on columns (pillars) and horizontal stress is perceived by the flying buttresses and buttresses. This innovation allowed much easier to design due to redistribution of loads, and the walls turned into a simple lightweight “shell”, the thickness did not affect overall carrying capacity of the building, which allowed to do a lot of Windows and wall paintings, for lack of walls, lost the art of stained glass and sculpture. The trim on the Windows are more decorative, and architectural elements in General become an important part of the facade.
In addition, Gothic has consistently applied the Lancet to form the arches, which also reduced their lateral thrust, allowing to direct a significant portion of the pressure arch for support. Pointed arches, which with the development of Gothic architecture become more and more elongated, pointed, expressed the main idea of Gothic architecture — the idea of aspiration of the temple up.
Often in place supports were added on the buttress was pinacle. The pinnacles is completed by the pointed spires of the pinnacles have often constructive. They could be just decorative elements and in the period of Mature Gothic are actively involved in creating the image of a Cathedral. Almost always constructed two tiers of flying buttresses. First, the top tier was designed to support roofs, over time, becoming more steep, and therefore heavier. The second tier of flying buttresses also opposed dawasamu on the roof of the wind.
The possible span of the arch was determined by the width of the Central nave and, accordingly, the capacity of the Cathedral, which was important for that time, when the Cathedral was one of the main centers of urban life, alongside the town hall.