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St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome

At the Basilica almost two thousand years of history. It all started with the fact that Emperor Constantine (reign 306 — 337) in the year 313, he signed the “edict of Milan”, which was allowed in the Roman Empire religious freedom.

Now Christians could no longer live in private homes and katokomb. The churches in which they could pray now was built by order of the Emperor.

And then in 324 year was built the first St. Peter’s Church. Saint Peter was martyred in Nero’s circus, on this site (over the tomb of Peter’s) was erected and the old Basilica.

The fresco fire in the Borgo the view of the old facade of the Cathedral of St. Peter
The fresco Raphael’s “the Fire in Borgo” the view of the old facade of the Cathedral of St. Peter
This Basilica is a spacious building, its front façade, which was located a square courtyard, framed by a covered colonnade.

As time went on, in the Middle ages Rome went into decline. While the Pope lived in Avignon, and old Saint Peter’s Basilica. After returning the Holy see in Rome Pope Julius II was engaged in active construction. He commissioned the architect Bramante for the reconstruction of the Cathedral.

Construction began in 1506. But Bramante to build the Cathedral did not, as she died in 1514. St. Peter’s Basilica was completed by other architects. What I wanted to see the interior of Bramante, can be seen in the famous fresco by Raphael “the school of Athens” in one of the rooms of the Vatican. After the death of Bramante in the construction of the Cathedral was engaged by Raphael, Baldassarre Peruzzi and Antonio da Sangallo.

Finally, in 1546, the leadership of the work was entrusted to Michelangelo. His ideal was the dome of Florence Cathedral, that’s exactly who he took as a basis.

Although Michelangelo designed the dome, but to see the completed Cathedral he was not destined. He managed to build only the drum for the dome. The arch was completed only in 1590. The height of the dome to the top of the cross 136,57 m, inner diameter is 42,56 m.

But the story construction is not over. In the beginning of the XVII century by order of Pope Paul V by the architect Carlo Maderno built the building in the form of a Latin (long) cross and the facade was rebuilt in Baroque style.

Modern interior of St. Peter’s Basilica and the square before the Cathedral is almost entirely the creation of Giovanni Bernini. The construction of the square was conducted in 1656-1667
Work on the sculptures in the inside of the Cathedral was carried on intermittently for nearly fifty years, from 1620 to 1670 In the end, we have the Cathedral in the Baroque style.
From the Renaissance there remains the masterpiece of Michelangelo’s marble “Pieta”. This sculpture was created by the master on the turn of the XV and XVI centuries, he was only 23 years old.

The Tombstones Of St. Peter’s Basilica
St. Peter’s Basilica is also a burial vault. Here lies a very important for the Catholic Church. For example, margravine Matilda Tuscan (or Canossa).

Tombstone did Bernini with his disciples. It was the first woman to be awarded the honor of being buried in this Cathedral.

the tomb of St. Peter

Only in St. Peter’s buried by three women. This is Matilde di Canossa, the Swedish Queen Christina and Maria Clementine, Sobeska

All popes are buried in the necropolis under St. Peter’s Basilica. Gravestones only the most worthy of them installed in the Cathedral. One of these was Pope Benedict XV (was Pope from 1914 to 1922). He went down in history as a peacemaker.nadramia St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome Pope John XXIII was also a peacemaker, he also tried to unite the Church and to reform, he was alleged to be blessed during the pontificate of John Paul II. The body of John Paul II also made in the Cathedral. He was alleged to be blessed. Pope Pius XII held his post from 1939 to 1958. In this ambiguous period of fascism existed with the blessing of the Church. It is also known that the Vatican helped to escape to Latin America to the fascists after the war. Dad, when all this was happening, however, is recognized as blissful. He seems to be hiding Jews.

Then, in the spring of 2008 the main Catholic Church we were not impressed — too expensive, ornate and uncomfortable. “God doesn’t live here” — why they made us. Honestly, not impressed even the famous Pieta, although maybe the reason was fatigue.