The main visual feature of Gothic architecture

The main visual feature of Gothic architecture is the aspiration of building up. Gothic cathedrals give the impression of lightness, easiness at its dizzying height. How to achieve a similar effect? The main technique of the Gothic – arched vaults. In the Romanesque buildings of stone, the roof was semi-circular and rested on the wall. To sustain loads, walls must have been massive. In the Gothic project designed a kind of complex frame supported directly on the Foundation. Thus, the walls lose the load carrying, hence the ability to make them light, to satisfy various decorations. In the Gothic cathedrals set UPS with complex frames, huge stained glass Windows, galleries, passages, towers and sculptures. In appearance it is impossible to guess what the internal structure of the building. Each of the facades of the crowd. For example, the photos of Notre Dame Cathedral taken from different sides, you can not guess that this is one and the same building.

Every Cathedral was devoted to some main topic: Paris – Notre Dame, Chartres – the history of the French Royal family. Decoration of cathedrals – reliefs, sculptures, frescoes, stained glass is a genuine encyclopedia of the medieval world and medieval life. For example, Chartres Cathedral is decorated with 9 thousand sculptures. Here intertwine biblical scenes, antique images, domestic scenes,pagan motifs, fantastic shapes. Can be found original caricatures in stone (one of the reliefs of the Cathedral in Parma depicts the donkey in the robes of a monk, who preaches to the wolves. There were the most unexpected solutions. On the towers of the Cathedral in the city of Lana are large statues of bulls – so the citizens immortalized the work animals for the carriage of stones for the construction. Victor Hugo wrote: “the Book of architecture was not of more clergy, religion, Rome – imagination, poetry, people. In this era there is thought expressed in stone, a privilege exactly like our freedom of the press: freedom of architecture”. [5]

In conclusion, I want to say that the middle ages is very specific and varied. She gave us a lot of cultural discoveries, was rich in literature and art. Look at the middle Ages as an era of domination of the clergy and aristocracy in no small measure relied on the fact that the bulk of written texts that serve as sources for Medievalists, went out from among ecclesiastical and partly secular elite. The bulk of the population of Europe, which consisted mostly of illiterate people is being “without archives” and “without history”. They only sporadically and superficially mentioned in Chronicles and other documents, and historians of the New time paid hardly more attention than the medieval authors. Anyway, as it seemed until the second half of the twentieth century, it was quite possible to ignore in the analysis of medieval culture. The latter was based upon religious consciousness and was entirely permeated them. The carriers of religious culture were primarily prominent Church thinkers, theologians, monks and mystics. It is in their creations captured the worldview of the Medieval era of faith and undivided domination of religious authority. According to this view, the theologian or philosopher of the time was able with the greatest depth and fullness to Express the content of the mindset of believers. Differences and debate among medieval thinkers reflect, in fact, different facets of the same dominant worldview. Persons indulging in statements of opposite sense and thereby thediva from Orthodoxy, were declared heretics and suffered severe persecution.