The technical Foundation of the Gothic style
Gothic architecture can be determined by design technology – the Lancet arch defines the characteristics and artistic merits of the building: the use of Lancet arches, is more stable than a semicircular arch that transmits the thrust at certain points, reinforced with buttresses and flying buttresses. So exempt the piers used for additional lighting. they cut out Windows and put glass. A feeling of rush up, the internal volume rushes in height. The architects have tirelessly and successfully worked in these two areas that. as the discharge surface vertically, leading to new achievements. Occasional setbacks did not stop searching, do not put into question the principles of Gothic architecture. The style was, thus, derived from technology, and this determines the taste, creating new criteria of beauty.
Gothic art was not used in Italy than in France. The Church here is less high. They are darker because they do not transmit the thrust of the PA poles for the liberation of surfaces of walls. Rarely used the buttresses shown in the picture Villas de Ara Opkara (bottom). And in the 15th century Italians blamed pipeli utielana General view. They saw them as barbaric. Thus the Renaissance masters refused, and the exploits of the medieval masons: they returned to the semicircular arch, to static structures where the masonry carries the load only vertically, regardless of the severity, pristoptera mass. The revival did not seek showiness, excessive) increase in the volume, the relief of partition. the light – and it paid for it by the disappearance of stained glass. In this sense, the Renaissance was a real setback.
It was not conscious. After all, the Revival finally abandoned the last of the Medieval style in which it is seen by following the terms by Vasari, only works “dreadful and barbaric, they can be called more of a confusion or disorder”, “poor houses, instructed one another”, a jumble of jewelry, “which deprived the building of all proportions”. They said that it was the German barbarians Goths, “Italy was flooded with these miserable buildings”. This word came to mean the style. In an effort to get rid of inharmonious buildings architects learn from the masters of antiquity, we have followed the examples of the preserved ancient monuments.
The fact that the return to antiquity was started in the city, and retained no traces of his past – Florence, may seem a paradox. But it is useful to remember that art does not depends on the case. Brunelleschi and first the Florentines, defending the idea of Reviving the first study of Roman monuments, in which they reasonably catch! the last echo of the principles and forms of ancient art: the Church of San Miniato, with its harmonious façade, and especially the famous baptistery due to its centric plan, the geometric decor, the mosaic in the 18th century considered the ancient building. He justified the violation of the rules, which made Francesco della.
Rome really has preserved a large number of monuments, which became models for the new architecture. Chief among them, of course, the Pantheon. He is the only perfectly preserved, Shch as it was transformed into the Church of Maria ad Martyres. The Pantheon had a perfect shape antique pronaos, a portico with columns of the order, supporting a triangular pediment, and a perfect centric plan – it was a rotunda covered by a dome. The Colosseum.
Ironically, the wealth of southern Italy except Naples villas and tombs, discovered by Francesco di Giorgio, remained less studied. The amphitheatre in Capua, the temples at Paestum and in Sicily up to the 18th century were almost unknown. But was kept in the North of the building, which was whether the impact on the local schools. In Milan San Lorenzo Lombards gave their time wonderful sample of the centric domed building with a huge atrium. Its interior has nothing in common with the Gothic, there is no striving for heights, shapes and rhythms are developed horizontally, the details associated with antique influence. Architects Venice we went to Verona arena and to draw her arches. in Pula (Istria) – arch of the Sergii and the amphitheater. Still, the main interest for the Venetians and the first place of Florentines imagined them dagomysskie, i.e. Byzantine past. Touching simple plan Moro o Coducci in SAP Giovanni Chrysosto-mo – plan of the Church “seashell” (a Greek cross with a Central dome framed by four small domes).
This brief review allows us to establish another important fact. From all studied buildings have survived only a Pantheon. SAP Lorezo in Milan, the Christian churches, they preserved the internal volume. These buildings could be used for the design of churches. Other monuments were granted to the delighted eyes only projections without plan (the arches, the arena and preserved columns). Renaissance artists had to learn to synthesise these disparate and incomplete elements. On the other hand, they had only Roman monuments, often late, and not Greek. The lessons of antiquity not contain the finesse of Attica (optical correction, sculptures), and the intricate compositions and monumental, with an emphasis in the gigantic glamor of Imperial architecture.
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