Buildings of antiquity
The knowledge of the Earth in primeval times. In ancient times (40-30 thousand years ago) even the primitive people had to understand the environment, to gather fruits, to fish, to hunt wild animals, to escape from the elemental forces of nature. Primitive hunters and gatherers were trying to expand their houses at the expense of more distant lands. So they learned the space.
Scenery the people portrayed in the form of notches on cave walls, bark of trees, bones of animals. So passed to future generations about hunting grounds and traps on the way to new places. These ancient drawings found in many parts of the world – Europe, Asia, Africa . Ancient Ukrainian also left behind a geographic context. Under archaeological excavations in the Cherkassy region of mammoth Tusk found with the records made by our ancestors have 13 thousand years ago. If you look closely you can see the hills, forest, river.
Carving symbolic signs environment support materials on the, man created schematic drawings area. They are considered ancient maps, true, very primitive. They appeared long before the appearance of writing. To distinguish the new rivers, lakes, mountains, forests have already known, people complained their names. The names were passed orally from generation Pokolenie. So people produced geographical experience.
The most ancient voyage and discovery. The names of the first travel history is not saved us. And we couldn’t do it: they were all men. Expanding the boundaries of known lands, they came across water obstacles – the seas that surround the land. NOT Surprising that people tried to find means to overcome them. Finds of ancient boats show that the craft was invented over 6000 years ago! The earliest significant voyage of discovery and made the ancient Egyptians. They lived in Africa on the shores of the Mediterranean , red sea . It is known that 3,000 years ago the Egyptians sailed along the coast of the red sea to the South. In those days nobody knew that Africa (Then called Libya ) on all sides washed by the sea.
This discovery was made by the Phoenicians – a people who lived on the East coast of the Mediterranean sea. The Phoenicians were bold sailors. In the VI century BC. e. they for three years obihnuly Africa, proving that it is surrounded on all sides by water. On their voyage they informed the Greek historian Herodotus .
Swimming Phoenicians around Africa is considered the most significant swimming Ancient times. Although the names of the first of the travelers are unknown, but they did – overcome the distances separating peoples. People gradually began to know each other. Ran the trade routes that went bold. With their stories about the unknown land, about the people who lived there began to be a geographical picture of the Earth.
Fig. Swimming Phoenicians around Africa in article VI BC
On the voyage of the Phoenicians
Probably, it was 595 BC, when near the southern tip of Africa there were strange ships. They were once shiny hull cracked, the huge sails burned. The paint that covered carved wood horse head on the nose and kept up fish tail at the stern, was washed away by the waves. Deadly terror covered the mariners, when off the coast of Somalia flew in a strong wind, when in coastal waters near the equator lay in wait for the coral reefs, when in the Mozambique Strait the ship was caught by a mighty current. However, the mariners have captured the joy and confidence when they found that the shoreline turned to the North-West.
By this time, we do not know exactly when it happened courageous voyage, nor the number and appearance of the ships sailed by the ancient mariners, nor the name of at least one of them. However, it could be.
German traveler Paul Werner Lange. Of the twentieth century.
Interestingly, the names of parts of the world that we use to this day, are descended from the Phoenician words: Europe from ereb Event, Asia from ASU – East.
The idea of the shape of the Earth. The form of our planet’s diverse peoples of the world represented in different ways. The inhabitants of the plains, the Land appeared flat and the highlanders in the mountains. In ancient India, for example, was represented by its flat disc, resting on the backs of elephants. In Asia, where towering mountains of the Himalayas, considered the world axis, mount Meru, which is located around seven oceans. In ancient Japan, a Land ascribed to the cubic form. The Egyptians saw our planet as ovoid sphere. In Ancient Greece one was represented by the Earth disk, resembling a warrior’s shield, the other – in the form of a column, one end of which the people lived. This holistic array of land washed by Ocean Rica.
At the other end of the planet the peoples of the Americas – the Aztecs – imagined Earth in the form of 5 squares arranged in a checkerboard pattern. In the center – the expanse of earth gods, surrounded by water. Below is the division of the world into four sectors, each of which has its own signs, their colors, their plants and animals. Other peoples of America – the Incas – see Earth as an empty cube.
So, the most common was the idea that the Earth is flat. This stemmed from the knowledge of ancient people of the world. Knowledge then was limited to exploring the immediate environment. In each spot surface seemed flat. Therefore, the sum of the flat surfaces must also be flat. Hence the impression of a flat Earth. Naturally, such views were far from modern.
Question and objectives
1. As primitive people perceive the world?
2. Geographical data transfer simple cartographic sketches of people of the Ancient era?
3. Why the invention of the boat was of great importance for understanding the world?
4. What is significant geographical discoveries were made by the Phoenicians?
5. Why swimming Phoenicians around Africa was so long?
6. How people in ancient times imagined the shape of the Earth?