The Gothic style in medieval art and culture
In the second half of the twelfth century in Western Europe began to appear the architecture of the new, unusual style, radically different from the Romanesque. This style, called Gothic, was rooted in cultural values developed cities, and most are firmly rooted in it is in architecture.
At this time, the townspeople, who won the long struggle with the feudal lords, were carriers of economic and social progress. Into the arena came a new burgher’s worldview, in which man was regarded as the Creator of wealth and a Creator, and one of its main features was the pride of the city and the desire to bring him glory. The main cultural value in this period was the Cathedral, almost get rid of its defensive functions.
Stylistic changes in architecture were not only caused by the change of functions of buildings, but also significant progress in the development of construction techniques based on the precise design and exact calculation. Gothic cathedrals were to have specific design and style features, the main of which was the refinement of the columns, the complication types of the Basilica, the construction of arches, lightweight construction, large arched stained-glass Windows, as well as the close relationship of the exterior and interior.
Goticheskii was widely used not only in Church architecture, but in sculpture. In the art of Gothic this subject has received much more autonomy. Masters more often began to use the diverse in the form of plastic, and all the figures on the facade of cathedrals housed them in a certain thematic lines. In some countries, the sculpture was located in the interior of cathedrals and others in the exterior. Gothic sculpture was distinguished by the frequent use of realistic elements of portraiture and personality, sometimes bordering on the transfer of key psychological characteristics of the portrayed person. Figures more often had correct anatomy, and the faces of the saints conveyed human emotions.
Gothic monumental painting is mainly represented by stained glass. The role of stained glass, with the openings of the Windows, has increased significantly to the detriment of the paintings. Gothic stained glass, in comparison with the Romanesque, had a deeper and more condensed color. The master began to use a wide color palette and change the ornamental elements of the human figures. Along with amazing stained glass Windows, Gothic era has left us delightful samples of portrait miniatures.
The era of Gothic architecture has left the world with an unmatched cultural values. created a new type of personality who piously believed in the afterlife and steadfastly perenositsya all the vicissitudes of fate. However, the person were not alien to earthly joy, he was able to create and to appreciate beauty. This is what survived to our time the monuments of Gothic culture.