Artistic image of Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals
The main force of the thrust ribbed vaults has been handed down the skilful builders of Gothic cathedrals outside of space and Church halls are not passed directly to the inner columns or thickened wall (as in Romanesque churches), and with the extension of the retaining arches (flying buttresses) were transferred to huge abutments — piers laid for this purpose from the outside of the side walls of the temple. These auxiliary, Alla Romana is massive and bulky parts of the structure of a Gothic Cathedral and made for the medieval builders possible to replace the thick pillars of the Romanesque churches of the thin columns and create such a light, rapidly rising up the composition of the internal space.
The relief of the supports does not mean, however, that in the Gothic “destroyed” stone material. On the contrary, the stone is extremely acute in Gothic architecture, both inside and outside. Just removed the excess stone in the interior, as in the fully elaborated marble statue depicting a muscular body. The removal of redundant material, leading to cut-out the profile Gothic pillars and ribs, bare their mechanical properties, such as stiffness, elasticity, lightness, and brings art to limit the severity of their functional role in the constructive framework of the building. Supports, ribs, etc. become in some huge grandmothermature parts of the body. One, but the basic property of rock in this case, however, obscured by translating it into an architectural plastic — it is his burden, weight, aspiration downward: it would be contrary to the common aspiration of the Gothic architectural forms rise, which found expression primarily in the fact that the dominant made not horizontal divisions, and intersecting the vertical supports. The wall was broken, thus, a chain of travel, i.e., vertical spans between passing from bottom to top supports, and the spans became most delicate, consisting usually of three parts: the lower arch, an intermediate arched top floor and huge arched Windows. The laciness of the walls is again the result of replacing the upper cylindrical arch ribbed. Taken together, this changes the nature of space, especially the main, middle-aisle (longitudinal space) of the Cathedral. It is as if inseparable is composed of vertical prisms, which culminate at the top with umbrellas ribbed vaults.
The cross-cutting nature of the arcades separating the nave from the other, emphasizes openness and mutual relationship of all parts of the interior space, and large tracery Windows with stained glass — stained glass — make easy, illusory and legkovnushaemy barrier between the interior and the outside world. The overwhelming power and extraordinary openness of the space, the grandeur and dynamism of stone structures, a strange light pouring through the colored glass,— all these merged into a single, exceptional for its artistic wholeness.
Very diverse Romanesque architecture in the number, especially the later variants very close to Gothic. In a number of other options it forms towards the Gothic style in sharp contrast. Such contrasting examples outer Romanesque and Gothic German architecture are the Church of Maria Laach (XI— XII century) and the French Cathedral in Reims (XIII century). The Church of Maria Laach was built on a combination of simple and regular geometric solids: cylinder and cone, prism and pyramid. These bodies stressed clearly identified in his abstract geometric entity, and not less clearly emphasized their simple adjunction to each other. Tower its character, thickness and large blank wall surfaces the architecture of the Church of Maria Laach is near akin to medieval military castle. The abstractness and deafness these stone geometric volumes enlivened located on the top of a double-arched Windows and arcaded open galleries, and both these Windows and the gallery they remind the watchers of the tower of the castle with their focus on the surrounding nature gave. In sparing the decoration of the walls of the main role is played by flat arches, flat chain flat arches and narrow vertical bands, the so-called litany or blade. This architectural ornaments does not destroy the clear shapes of the stone walls, though a few tempers the impression of thickness. He doesn’t destroy and some isolation, which is especially felt in the lower, more remote half of the building. This isolation of the whole internally harmonizes the strange unreality of his crowning parts, especially the Central tower, resembling a residential home bizarre, empty, with open spans of Windows.
After the silent towers of the Church of Maria Laach Reims Cathedral amazing complexity and decorative richness of its architecture. Its facade is not silent, and eager to show and tell as much of the city the crowd is attracted to him. Covering his endless sculptures — a kind of “Bible in pictures”, embodied in stone worldview of the early middle ages. In this abundance of crowding on the facade of the sculpture seemed to have found a reflection of the noisy bustle of the market town: in the Cathedral there is no shadow of isolation from the outside world. Here, the insulating wall is almost destroyed, replaced by cross-cutting architectural backbone. Architectural details extremely outonline, turned into stone openwork, merged with the sculpture in the complicated lace amazingly slim, beautiful and varied pattern, striking in its richness and ingenuity. Shapes that are located close by building in a horizontal tape an entire floor upstairs, we are alone, separated by spans of Windows in the 2nd floor, to form complex scenes in the pediments of the portals, stretched in the arches over the entrances, then again are located in horizontal rows on each side of the entrance doors. Thus everywhere plexus figures in ornamental rows correspond to the main architectural lines, and the articulation surfaces. All this variety and richness of the shadows and therefore there is no confusion, everything is subordinated to the main clear and major rhythms, everything sounds harmonious and sonorous, like an experienced hand guided the orchestra.